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澳门百乐门在线官网-控制论失落的历史 新时代的自动化妄想症

作者:澳门百乐门在线官网 时间:2020-12-25 00:10
本文摘要:itisperhapsthedelusionofeverygenerationtoexaggeratethenoveltyoftheirageandbelievetheyfacechallengesandopportunitiesthatnoneha 每个世代都有高估自己时代的新鲜感,指出自己世代面临的挑战和机会可能是前人从未经历过的通病。

澳门百乐门

itisperhapsthedelusionofeverygenerationtoexaggeratethenoveltyoftheirageandbelievetheyfacechallengesandopportunitiesthatnoneha 每个世代都有高估自己时代的新鲜感,指出自己世代面临的挑战和机会可能是前人从未经历过的通病。soitistodayaswecontemplateourautomatedfuture .现在我们在思考人类自动化的未来时也犯了这样的妄想症。thegreatserviceofthomasrid’sbook-riseofthemachines : thelosthistoryofcybernetics-istohighlighthowwwehavebeengrapppics erela neforlongerthanwemighthaveimagined .托马斯里德(Thomas Rid )著作《机器的兴起:生物学重生的历史》 (Riseofthemachines 3360 Thelosthistoryofcybernetics )的最重要贡献italsoshowshowthedebatehasbeencolouredbythefullspectrumofemotions .还指出,这种讨论存在于各种各样的感情之中。

According to Rid是, theideaofplayinggodandcreatingmechanicallifepredatestheinventionofthecomputerbymanycenturies-atleastintheworldofmythology early thetaleofthegolem,ashapelessclayfigurebroughttolifebyhumans .早期的犹太民间传说中有魔像(golem )的故事。The Greeks invented Hephaestus,the divine blacksmith,who created automata out of bronze .希腊人造铁匠保护上帝赫菲斯塔斯(Hephaestus ),他用铜theczechplaywrightkarelapekgaveusr.u.r.(Rossum’Suniversalrobots ), astoryaboutafactorymanufacturingartificialworkersthatpopularisedthewordrobotwhenitwasstagedintheusin 1950 .捷克剧作家卡雷尔扎佩克(Karel 创作了在流行机器人一词的工厂生产人工劳动力的戏剧《罗萨姆万能机器人生产公司》 (Rossums Universal Robots )。humansmayhavelongobsessedaboutmachinesthatcouldthinkandmakedecisionsontheirown .人类多年来可能执着于需要自主思考和要求的机器。Then,in the 1940s, theybegantobecomearealityasartilleryshellsequippedwithradiofuseshelpedshootdownv-1 rocketsduringthesecondworldwar.1940年代nevers ponclashedwithanotherautonomousweaponwithsolittlehumaninterference,Rid writes .里德写道“完全没有”。

Norbert Wiener,a brilliant,eccentric MIT mathematician,coinedthetermcyberneticsandemergedasitsleadingtheoretician, coinedthetermcyberneticsandemergedasitsleadingtheoretician orcontrolandcommunicationintheanimalandthemachinein 1948 .才华横溢的不可思议的m 成为这个领域的领袖理论家,1948年发行了《生物学》 (Cybernetics ),也被称为《动物和机器内部的掌控和通信》 (controland communication inthean IMaland the Machine )。As Rid puts it,Wienerand THeearly CyBerneticist Sre Placed THemagico FMythology With SCience .正如里德所说,维纳和早期生物学家在科学中取代了神话的魔力wienerwasseenastheprophetofthesecondindustrialrevolution,veeringfromthewildlyenthusiastictothedeeplypessimistic .维纳被认为是第二个 in 1950 hewrotethatautomaticmachineswouldbetheeconomicequivalentofslavelabour, producinganunemploymentsituationincomparisonwithwhich . thedepressionofthethirtieswillseemlikeapleasantjoke.1950年, 他说thatviewhasparticularresonancetodayasweonceagainfretabouttheriseoftherobots .这个观点今天有类似的意思,我们再次担心机器人的崛起。

Rid,aprofessorinsecuritystudiesatking’scollegelondon,is a fine chronicler of the debate,deftly recounting the hope, IS a fine Chronicler of the debate andfearsthathaveaccompaniedourthinkingonautomation .是伦敦大学国王学院安全性研究的教授,里德是关于这次辩论的杰出记者themachineswerealwaysapositiveandanegativeforceatthesametime,utopian and dystopian at once, althoughmostofthetimeoptimismdoough governmentsandthemilitarydominatedtheearlyuseofcomputersinthe 1950 sand 1960 s, withtheusarmyatonetimeevenexploringthedeploymentinvietnamofan 18ft,two-leggedwalkingtanknownasthepedipulator .上世纪5。政府和军队控制着计算机的早期应用,美军甚至考虑在越南部署一辆被称为步行机的高18英尺的两条腿行走的坦克。radicalandlibertarianthinkersintheusremainedsuspiciousaboutcomputersseeingthemasameansofsocietalcontrol .美国保守自由主义思想家当时也是计算机onedescribedcyborgsastheillegitimateoffspringofmilitarismandpatriarchalcapitalism .半机器人被描述为军国主义和父权资本主义的私生子。

澳门百乐门

butascomputersbecamemorepowerfulandaccessible, theywereincreasinglyviewedbyhippiesontheuswestcoastasamechanismforliberation helpingtostimulatetheastonishingdevelopmentofsilic 随着电脑变得更强,被更多人使用,他们被美国西海岸的嬉皮士视为通往权利之路,有助于刺激硅谷的难以置信的发展。Timothy Leary,the US psychologist,compared Computerswith PSychedelicdrugsgiventheirmind-enhancing Properties .电脑具有提高精神的特性moreharmoniousvisionsofmanandmachineemerged, andby 1995 itwasestimatedthat 10 percentoftheuspopulationcouldbeclassifiedascyborged giventheirbodiescontainedimplants, suchaselectronicpacemakersorartificialjoints .经常出现人和机器更人和自然的画面,到1995年为止,美国估计为10。Richard braut igan’spoeticvisionofcomputersasmachinesoflovinggracebegantotakeshape .理查德布朗蒂根(richardbrautigan )将计算机riseofthemachinesisafascinatingifslightlyfrustratingbook, dazzlinginpartsbutneverquiteaddinguptoanintegratedwhole.010300 onestarklessonisthatweshouldremainwaryofallthosepredictingthefu The futurists,of course,didn’talwaysgetthefuturewrong,but almost always they got the speed,the scale, and the shapping rid writes.they continue to do so .当然,未来学者并不总是不知道未来,但他们在速度、规模和形状方面完全不知道。里德写着他们会一如既往。


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